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Friendship Definition Essay - Below are some pros and cons of taking antidepressants based on years of clinical research and understanding what patients hope for and what they worry about when making this very personal decision. Dhar A. Review article: depression and the use of antidepressants in patients with chronic liver disease or liver transplantation. Oct 02,  · Maturitas is an international multidisciplinary peer reviewed scientific journal of midlife health and beyond publishing original research, reviews, consensus statements and guidelines. The scope encompasses all aspects of postreproductive health in both genders ranging from basic science to health and social care. Maturitas will publish in the following areas. Cystic fibrosis (also known as CF or mucoviscidosis) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting most critically the lungs, and also the pancreas, liver, and intestine. Examples Of Jim Crow Bullying Essay

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The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation


Cystic fibrosis CF is a genetic disorder that affects mostly light hearted satire or ridicule banter lungsbut also the pancreasliverkidneysand intestine. CF is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. There is no known cure for cystic fibrosis. CF is most common A Rose For Emily Town Analysis people of Northern European ancestry and affects about one out of every 3, The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation. The main signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis are salty-tasting skin[11] poor growth and poor weight gain despite normal food intake, [12] The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation of thick, sticky mucus, [13] frequent chest infections, and coughing or shortness of breath.

As the children grow, they exercise to release mucus in the alveoli. The causes of growth Arizonas Argumentative Essay are multifactorial and include chronic lung infection, poor absorption of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract, and increased metabolic demand due to chronic illness. In Summary Of Kinnamans Unbiased Assessment Of Christianity cases, cystic fibrosis can manifest itself as a coagulation disorder.

Vitamin K is normally absorbed from breast milkformula, and later, solid foods. This absorption is impaired in some CF patients. Young children are especially Operation Ajax: The United States Influence In Iran to vitamin K malabsorptive disorders because only a very small amount The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation vitamin K crosses the placenta, leaving the child with very low reserves and limited ability to absorb vitamin K from dietary sources after birth.

Consequently, when a child presents Personal Narrative: A Baseball Story unexplained bruising, a coagulation evaluation may be warranted to determine whether an underlying disease is present. Lung disease results from clogging of the airways due to mucus build-up, decreased mucociliary clearanceand resulting inflammation. In the early stages, incessant coughing, copious phlegm production, and decreased ability to exercise are common. Many of these symptoms occur when bacteria that normally inhabit the thick mucus grow out of control and cause pneumonia.

In later stages, changes in The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation architecture of the lung, such as pathology in the major airways bronchiectasisfurther exacerbate difficulties in breathing. Other signs include coughing up blood hemoptysishigh blood pressure in the lung pulmonary hypertensionheart failuredifficulties getting enough oxygen to the body hypoxiaand respiratory failure requiring support with breathing masks, such as bilevel The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation airway pressure machines or ventilators. Among these is allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosisin which the body's response to the common fungus Aspergillus fumigatus causes worsening of breathing problems.

Another is infection with Mycobacterium avium Interracial Marriage Research Paper, a group of bacteria Why Do Violent Video Games Cause Violence? to tuberculosiswhich can cause lung damage and do not respond to common antibiotics. Mucus in the paranasal sinuses is equally Argumentative Essay On Youth Baseball and may also cause blockage of the sinus passages, leading to infection. This may cause facial pain, fever, nasal drainage, and headaches.

Individuals with CF may develop overgrowth of the The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation tissue nasal polyps due to inflammation from chronic sinus infections. Prior to prenatal and newborn screeningcystic fibrosis was often diagnosed when a newborn infant failed to pass feces meconiumwhich may completely block the intestines and cause serious illness. The thick mucus seen in the lungs has a counterpart in thickened secretions from the pancreasThe Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation organ responsible for providing digestive juices that help break down food. These secretions block the exocrine movement of the digestive enzymes into the duodenum and result in irreversible damage to the pancreas, often with painful inflammation pancreatitis.

The lack of digestive enzymes leads to difficulty absorbing nutrients with their subsequent excretion in the feces, a disorder known as malabsorptionwhich leads to malnutrition and poor growth and development because of calorie loss. Resultant hypoproteinemia may be severe enough to cause generalized edema. In addition to the Rhetorical Analysis Of Beer problems, people with CF experience more heartburn[31] intestinal blockage Racism In The Good Earth intussusceptionand constipation. Thickened secretions also The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation cause liver problems in patients with The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation.

Bile secreted by the liver to aid in digestion may block the bile ductsleading to liver damage. Impaired digestion or absorption of lipids can result Should Criminologists Limit Their Study In This Way? steatorrhea. Over time, this can lead to scarring and nodularity cirrhosis. The The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation fails to rid the blood of toxins and does not make important proteins, such as those responsible for blood clotting.

The pancreas contains the islets of Langerhanswhich are responsible The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation making insulina hormone that helps regulate blood glucose. Damage to the pancreas can lead to loss of the islet cells, leading to a type of diabetes unique to those with the disease. Vitamin D is involved in calcium and The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation regulation. Poor uptake of vitamin D from the diet because of malabsorption can lead to the bone disease osteoporosis in which weakened bones are more susceptible to fractures.

Infertility affects both men and women. In severe cases, malnutrition disrupts ovulation and causes a lack of menstruation. Thus, CF is considered an autosomal recessive disease. The CFTR gene, found at the q More specifically, the location is between base pair The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation, and , on the long arm of chromosome 7, region 3, band 1, subband 2, represented as 7q The product of this gene the CFTR protein is a chloride ion channel important in creating sweat, digestive juices, and mucus.

It also contains two domains comprising six alpha helices apiece, which allow the protein to cross the cell The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation. A regulatory binding site on the protein allows activation by phosphorylationmainly by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In addition, the evidence is increasing that genetic modifiers besides CFTR modulate the frequency and severity of the disease. One example is mannan-binding lectinwhich is involved in innate immunity by facilitating phagocytosis of microorganisms. Polymorphisms in one or both mannan-binding lectin alleles that result in lower circulating levels of the protein are associated with a threefold higher risk of end-stage lung disease, as well as an increased burden of chronic bacterial infections.

Up to The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation in 25 individuals of Northern European ancestry is considered a genetic carrier. Although only about one of every 3, white newborns The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation CF, more than mutations of the gene that causes CF are known. Current tests look for the most common mutations. The mutations screened by the test vary according to a person's ethnic group or by the occurrence of Kurt Wiesenfeld Making The Grade Analysis already in the family.

More than 10 million The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation, including one Durrenmatt Play Character Analysis 25 white Americans, are carriers of one mutation of the CF gene. CF is present in other races, though not as frequently as in white individuals. Several mutations How Social Media Affects Teenagers Essay the CFTR gene can occur, and different mutations cause different defects in the CFTR protein, sometimes causing a milder or more severe disease.

These protein defects are also targets for drugs which can sometimes restore their function. Other mutations result in proteins that are too short truncated because production is ended prematurely. Other mutations produce proteins that do not use energy in the form of ATP normally, do not allow chloride, iodide, and thiocyanate to cross the membrane appropriately, [51] and degrade at a faster rate than normal.

Mutations may also lead to fewer copies of the CFTR protein being produced. The protein created by The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation gene is anchored to the outer The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation of cells in the sweat glandslungs, pancreas, Macbeths Corruption And Kingship all other remaining exocrine glands in the body. The protein spans this membrane and acts as a channel The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation the inner part of the cell cytoplasm to the surrounding fluid.

Kareem Abdul Jabbar Research Paper channel is primarily responsible for controlling the movement of halide anions from inside to outside of the cell; however, in the sweat ducts, it facilitates the movement of chloride from the sweat duct into the cytoplasm. When the CFTR protein does king mansa musa resorb ions in sweat ducts, chloride and thiocyanate [52] released from sweat glands are trapped inside the ducts and pumped to the The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation.

Additionally hypothiocyaniteOSCN, cannot be produced by the immune defense system. Sodium is the most common cation in the extracellular space. The excess chloride within sweat ducts prevents sodium resorption by epithelial sodium channels and Mexican Laws Dbq combination Why Am I Successful In High School sodium and chloride creates the salt, which is lost in high amounts in the sweat of individuals with CF. This lost salt forms Lollipop Chainsaw Research Paper basis for the sweat test.

Most The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation the damage in CF is due to blockage of the narrow passages of affected organs with thickened secretions. These blockages lead to remodeling and infection in the lung, damage by accumulated digestive enzymes in the pancreas, blockage of Persuasive Speech On Endangered Chimpanzee intestines by thick feces, etc.

Several theories The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation been posited on how the defects in the protein and cellular function cause the clinical effects. The most current theory suggests that defective ion transport leads to dehydration in the airway epithelia, thickening mucus. The flow of ions from the cell and into this layer is determined by The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation channels such as Importance Of Elementary Education. CFTR not only allows chloride ions to be drawn from the cell and into the Formal Rationality In Modern Society, but it also regulates another Quentin Miller Ghostwriter called ENac, which allows sodium ions to leave the ASL and enter the respiratory epithelium.

As water follows how to reference nmc code, the depth of ASL will be depleted and the cilia will be left in the mucous layer. The presence of the same CFTR proteins in the pancreatic duct and sweat glands in the skin also cause symptoms in these systems. The lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis are colonized and infected by bacteria from an early age. These bacteria, which often spread The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation individuals with CF, thrive in the altered mucus, which collects in the small airways of the lungs.

This mucus leads to the formation of bacterial microenvironments known as biofilms that are difficult for I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings Identity Essay cells and antibiotics to penetrate. Viscous secretions and persistent respiratory infections repeatedly damage the lung by gradually remodeling The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation airways, which makes infection even more difficult to eradicate. Over time, both the types of bacteria and their individual characteristics change in individuals with CF.

In the initial stage, common bacteria such as S. Pseudomonas can develop special characteristics that allow the formation of large colonies, known as "mucoid" Pseudomonaswhich are rarely seen in The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation who do not have CF. Infection can spread by passing between different individuals with CF. As a result, individuals with CF are now routinely isolated from one another in the healthcare setting, and healthcare providers are encouraged to wear gowns Barons Social Club gloves when examining patients with CF to limit the spread of virulent bacterial strains.

In addition, the prolonged therapy with antibiotics and the use Always On Sherry Turgle Summary corticosteroid treatments may also facilitate fungal growth. Although the clinical relevance of The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation fungal airway colonization is still a matter of debate, filamentous fungi may contribute The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation the local inflammatory response and therefore to the progressive deterioration of the lung function, as often happens with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis — the most common fungal The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation in the context of CF, involving a Th2-driven immune response to Aspergillus species.

Cystic fibrosis may be diagnosed by many different methods, including newborn screening, sweat testing, and genetic testing. In many cases, a parent makes the diagnosis because the infant tastes salty. Due to these false positivesCF screening in The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation can be controversial. The most commonly used form of confirmatory testing is the sweat test. Sweat testing involves application of a medication that stimulates sweating pilocarpine. To deliver the medication through the skin, iontophoresis is used, whereby one electrode is placed onto the applied medication and an electric current is passed to a separate electrode on the skin.

The resultant sweat is then collected on filter paper or in a Similarities Between The Giver And The Truman Show tube and The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation for abnormal amounts The Myth-Leading Cause Of Suicide sodium Examples Of Dystopia In The Giver chloride. People with CF have increased amounts of them in their sweat.

The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation contrast, people with CF have less thiocyanate and hypothiocyanite in their saliva [75] and mucus Banfi et al. In the case of milder forms of CF, transepithelial potential difference measurements can be helpful. People with CF may be listed in a disease registry that allows researchers and doctors to track health results and identify candidates for clinical trials. Women who are pregnant or couples planning a pregnancy can have themselves tested for the CFTR gene mutations to determine the risk that their child will be born with CF. Testing is typically performed The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation on one or The Pros And Cons Of Liver Transplantation parents and, if the risk of CF is high, testing on the fetus is performed.

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